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How to Deploy Deno to Digital Ocean

Digital Ocean is a popular cloud infrastructure provider offering a variety of hosting services ranging from networking, to compute, to storage.

Here's a step by step guide to deploying a Deno app to Digital Ocean using Docker and GitHub Actions.

The pre-requisite for this is:

Create Dockerfile and docker-compose.yml Jump to heading

To focus on the deployment, our app will simply be a main.ts file that returns a string as an HTTP response:

import { Application } from "https://deno.land/x/oak/mod.ts";

const app = new Application();

app.use((ctx) => {
  ctx.response.body = "Hello from Deno and Digital Ocean!";

await app.listen({ port: 8000 });

Then, we'll create two files -- Dockerfile and docker-compose.yml -- to build the Docker image.

In our Dockerfile, let's add:

FROM denoland/deno



ADD . /app

RUN deno cache main.ts

CMD ["run", "--allow-net", "main.ts"]

Then, in our docker-compose.yml:

version: '3'

    build: .
    container_name: deno-container
    image: deno-image
      - "8000:8000"

Let's test this locally by running docker compose -f docker-compose.yml build, then docker compose up, and going to localhost:8000.

Hello from localhost

It works!

Build, Tag, and Push your Docker image to Digital Ocean Container Registry Jump to heading

Digital Ocean has its own private Container Registry, with which we can push and pull Docker images. In order to use this registry, let's install and authenticate doctl on the command line.

After that, we'll create a new private registry named deno-on-digital-ocean:

doctl registry create deno-on-digital-ocean

Using our Dockerfile and docker-compose.yml, we'll build a new image, tag it, and push it to the registry. Note that docker-compose.yml will name the build locally as deno-image.

docker compose -f docker-compose.yml build

Let's tag it with new:

docker tag deno-image registry.digitalocean.com/deno-on-digital-ocean/deno-image:new

Now we can push it to the registry.

docker push registry.digitalocean.com/deno-on-digital-ocean/deno-image:new

You should see your new deno-image with the new tag in your Digital Ocean container registry:

New deno image on Digital Ocean container registry


Deploy to Digital Ocean via SSH Jump to heading

Once our deno-image is in the registry, we can run it anywhere using docker run. In this case, we'll run it while in our Digital Ocean Droplet, their hosted virtual machine.

While on your Droplet page, click on your Droplet and then console to SSH into the virtual machine. (Or you can ssh directly from your command line.)

To pull down the deno-image image and run it, let's run:

docker run -d --restart always -it -p 8000:8000 --name deno-image registry.digitalocean.com/deno-on-digital-ocean/deno-image:new

Using our browser to go to the Digital Ocean address, we now see:

Hello from Deno and Digital Ocean


Automate the Deployment via GitHub Actions Jump to heading

Let's automate that entire process with GitHub actions.

First, let's get all of our environmental variables needed for logging into doctl and SSHing into the Droplet:

  • DIGITALOCEAN_HOST (the IP address of your Droplet)
  • DIGITALOCEAN_USERNAME (the default is root)
  • DIGITALOCEAN_SSHKEY (more on this below)

Generate DIGITALOCEAN_SSHKEY Jump to heading

The DIGITALOCEAN_SSHKEY is a private key where its public counterpart exists on the virtual machine in its ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file.

To do this, first let's run ssh-keygen on your local machine:


When prompted for an email, be sure to use your GitHub email for the GitHub Action to authenticate properly. Your final output should look something like this:

Your identification has been saved in /your_home/.ssh/id_rsa
Your public key has been saved in /your_home/.ssh/id_rsa.pub
The key fingerprint is:
SHA256:/hk7MJ5n5aiqdfTVUZr+2Qt+qCiS7BIm5Iv0dxrc3ks user@host
The key's randomart image is:
+---[RSA 3072]----+
|                .|
|               + |
|              +  |
| .           o . |
|o       S   . o  |
| + o. .oo. ..  .o|
|o = oooooEo+ ...o|
|.. o *o+=.*+o....|
|    =+=ooB=o.... |

Next, we'll have to upload the newly generated public key to your Droplet. You can either use ssh-copy-id or manually copy it, ssh into your Droplet, and pasting it to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.

Using ssh-copy-id:

ssh-copy-id {{ username }}@{{ host }}

This command will prompt you for the password. Note that this will automatically copy id_rsa.pub key from your local machine and paste it to your Droplet's ~/.ssh/authorized_keys file. If you've named your key something other than id_rsa, you can pass it with the -i flag to the command:

ssh-copy-id -i ~/.ssh/mykey {{ username }}@{{ host }}

To test whether this is done successfully:

ssh -i ~/.ssh/mykey {{ username }}@{{ host }}


Define the yml File Jump to heading

The final step is to put this all together. We're basically taking each step during the manual deployment and adding them to a GitHub Actions workflow yml file:

name: Deploy to Digital Ocean

      - main

  REGISTRY: "registry.digitalocean.com/deno-on-digital-ocean"
  IMAGE_NAME: "deno-image"

    name: Build, Push, and Deploy
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
    - name: Checkout main
      uses: actions/checkout@v2

    - name: Set $TAG from shortened sha
      run: echo "TAG=`echo ${GITHUB_SHA} | cut -c1-8`" >> $GITHUB_ENV

    - name: Build container image
      run: docker compose -f docker-compose.yml build

    - name: Tag container image
      run: docker tag ${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }} ${{ env.REGISTRY }}/${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }}:${{ env.TAG }}

    - name: Install `doctl`
      uses: digitalocean/action-doctl@v2
        token: ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_ACCESS_TOKEN }}

    - name: Log in to Digital Ocean Container Registry
      run: doctl registry login --expiry-seconds 600

    - name: Push image to Digital Ocean Container Registry
      run: docker push ${{ env.REGISTRY }}/${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }}:${{ env.TAG }}

    - name: Deploy via SSH
      uses: appleboy/ssh-action@master
        host: ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_HOST }}
        username: ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_USERNAME }}
        key: ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_SSHKEY }}
        script: |
          # Login to Digital Ocean Container Registry
          docker login -u ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_ACCESS_TOKEN }} -p ${{ secrets.DIGITALOCEAN_ACCESS_TOKEN }} registry.digitalocean.com
          # Stop and remove a running image.
          docker stop ${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }}
          docker rm ${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }}
          # Run a new container from a new image
          docker run -d --restart always -it -p 8000:8000 --name ${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }} ${{ env.REGISTRY }}/${{ env.IMAGE_NAME }}:${{ env.TAG }}

When you push to GitHub, this yml file is automatically detected, triggering the Deploy action.